Download A Computational Logic by Robert S. Boyer PDF

By Robert S. Boyer

ISBN-10: 0121229505

ISBN-13: 9780121229504

In contrast to such a lot texts on good judgment and arithmetic, this e-book is ready the best way to end up theorems instead of facts of particular effects. We provide our solutions to such questions as: - whilst should still induction be used? - How does one invent a suitable induction argument? - whilst should still a definition be increased?

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Xn), then (G XI . . Xn) = body[F0 ' ] = b o d y [ G ' ] . If ( Y l , . . , Yn) ^ (XI, . . , Xn), then ( G XI . . Xn) = ( FO XI . . Xn ) = body[F0 ' ] = body[G ' ] . D. That concludes the proof that the definition principle is sound. No constructivist would be pleased by the foregoing justification of recur- J. LEXICOGRAPHIC RELATIONS / 51 sive definition because of its freewheeling, set-theoretic character. The truth is that induction and inductive definition are more basic than the truths of high-powered set theory, and it is slightly odd to jus­ tify a fundamental concept such as inductive definition with set the­ ory.

FLATTEN (CDR X) ANS)) (CONS X ANS)); r is LESSP ; m is the function symbol COUNT 1, where ( COUNT 1 X Y ) is 46 / III. A PRECISE DEFINITION OF THE THEORY defined to be ( COUNT X) . FLATTEN (CDR X) ANS)) (C0UNT1 X A N S ) ) ) . Both theorems are easily proved from CAR. LESSP, CDR. LESSP, and the definition of COUNT 1. Note that the second theorem is proved before any axiom about MC. FLATTEN has b e e n posited, even though MC. FLATTEN is used as a function symbol in the theorem. If we have defined ( f Χ χ .

The truth table method requires execution time exponential in the number of variables in the expression. No one knows a method that does not require exponential time in the worst case. Furthermore, no one has yet proved that all algorithms require exponential time in the worst case. The version of TAUTOLOGY. CHECKER that we present is more effi­ cient than the truth table method on one important class of express­ ions, namely, those in " I F - n o r m a l form. ,, u An expression x is said to be in IF-normal form provided that no subterm of x beginning with an I F has as its first argument another term beginning with an I F .

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