Download A History of the Hebrew Language by Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher PDF

By Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher

ISBN-10: 9652233978

ISBN-13: 9789652233974

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Sample text

H ebrew ‫ אני‬T , ‫‘ הם‬they’, etc. 8 M orphology §13] II. The Verb § 13. H ebrew has two tenses, the perfect and the imperfect. The perfect is built by the addition of suffixes to the base which consists of the root plus the vowels. , ‫‘ ל מד‬he learned', ‫‘ ל מד‬he taught'. The im perfect adds prefixes (and in certain persons, suffixes) to the base. ) will learn’. Ethiopie has three tenses, while A kkadian has four. It is comm only assum ed that, as in early Indo-European, these tenses were employed prim arily to indicate notions o f aspect (completed and uncom pleted action), regardless of the time involved, and only secondarily cam e to express notions o f time.

A ccording to the generally accepted assum ption Proto-Semitic had 29 consonantal phonem es. In Hebrew the num ber was reduced to 23 after 12 §§19-20] P honology the merger of several phonemes (cf. T able 1). Since the Hebrew alphabet has 22 signs, one of them, ‫ ש‬, must do service for tw o sounds the ‫( ש‬/sf) and ‫( ש‬/s/). , introduced the diacritical point to distinguish between these two. As pointed out above (§ § 8 -1 0 ), H ebrew possesses two groups o f consonantal phonem es which set it ap art in this respect from the IE languages: the gutturals (pharyngals and laryngals) and the em phatics.

This is one o f the few cases in which cuneiform transliterations enable us to put our finger on the process o f historical sound changes. 24 §§34-35] Phonology Literature: Bergsträsser, HG 125§ ‫;י‬ Bauer-Leander, Hist. , pp. ; H arris, Development, pp. ; H. Bauer, Z A W 59 (1930), p. 75; . ‫ וא ילך‬99 , ‫ עמ‬, ) ‫ תרב יץ ל (תשכ ״א‬, ‫ רב י ן‬. ‫ח‬ b. The Proto-Semitic Short Vowels in B H §35. קר‬m orning’, [o ] as in ‫‘ דבר‬w ord', ‫‘ ח כ מ ה‬wisdom’. There is no doubt that the qam es in these w ords in the Tiberian vocalization is to be pronounced [ ‫] כ‬, according to the pronunciation of the A shkenazic and Yemenite Jews o f today rather than according to the Sephardic pronunciation (see below §§37, 373).

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