By M. Tendahl
A scary new method of how we comprehend metaphors completely evaluating and contrasting the claims made through relevance theorists and cognitive linguists. The ensuing hybrid idea exhibits the complementarity of many positions in addition to the necessity and probability of accomplishing a broader and extra practical conception of our figuring out.
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Additional info for A Hybrid Theory of Metaphor: Relevance Theory and Cognitive Linguistics
An often quoted example (cf. Sperber and Wilson 1986: 43) is the one in which Mary and Peter are looking at a landscape where only Mary notices a distant church. Sperber and Wilson suggest that in order to talk about that church, Peter need not have noticed that church. What is required is that Mary’s behaviour, usually the making The Relevance-Theory Approach to Metaphor 29 of an utterance, directs Peter’s attention towards the church. The church has been manifest to both of them. The important point to note, however, is that at least one of them must not only have some manifest assumption about that, but a strongly manifest assumption.
This particular subclass takes as input both the utterance of a speaker and premises from the hearer’s knowledge of the world. It connects old with new information and, as mentioned above, achieves relevance thereby. Sperber and Wilson call this subclass contextual implications: Contextual implication A set of assumptions P contextually implies an assumption Q in the context C if and only if (i) the union of P and C non-trivially implies Q, (ii) P does not non-trivially imply Q, and (iii) C does not non-trivially imply Q.
This thought is also described by Clark and Marshall (1981) when they write about potential physical co-presence. The following quote illustrates this notion. Imagine that Bob isn’t paying attention to the target candle, but it is easily within view. Ann can then say this candle, which gets Bob to look at it and complete the physical copresence of him, her, and the candle. (Clark and Marshall 1981: 38) Perhaps mutual knowledge as conceived by Clark and Marshall is not that different from mutual manifestness after all.