By Tim Newark, Angus McBride
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Extra resources for Age of the Crusades
Powell investigates trends in Queen Mary Tudor’s (r. 1553–58) promotion of bishops. Rather than seeking models of Tridentine reform, Mary privileged men who had connections to herself and her late mother, Queen Katherine of Aragon, and who had suffered deposition or imprisonment due to these connections or as a result of English Protestantism. As Powell shows, the Marian episcopate, charged with re-establishing English Catholicism, was influenced very little initially by Cardinal Reginald Pole (archbp.
The bishop’s inability to fund and implement his own plan for rebuilding his cathedral reflects his weakness in relation to external forces that otherwise could have provided him with support: the archbishop of Milan, Tortona’s feudal lord, and a local cardinal. The campaign to rebuild the cathedral moved quickly from episcopal control into negotiation amongst these three individuals, all of whom ranked above Gambara on the social hierarchy. Instead of embracing the bishop as the proper local leader and putting their resources at his disposal, these three privileged their own standards and desires, supported with their more extensive wealth and justified by their elite status.
In terms of the Marian episcopate, it is vital to recognize the role restitution played in Mary’s choices. 17 Mary’s choice of him for Bristol was an attempt to recompense one of the men who had suffered for his defense of her mother. 19 If several of Mary’s senior prelates had been persecuted or jailed for their Catholic commitments, a number of others had endured exile because of opposition to religious change. The most prominent among these was Mary’s cousin Cardinal Reginald Pole. Although Pole merited Canterbury on other grounds, his own suffering, and that of his family, for the sake of Katherine and the Catholic faith certainly commended him to the queen.