By Christopher J Barrow
An creation to runoff agriculture - a sort of agricultural irrigation - this article describes how using floor and subsurface water, usually ignored and wasted, allows either small farmers and advertisement agriculturists to enhance yields and the protection of harvest, even in harsh and distant environments. The textual content introduces the innovations and methods, in addition to the demanding situations and the potential for the the most important strategy, that could give a contribution a lot to decreasing land degradation and enhancing conservation and sustainability.
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Extra info for Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture
Small-scale schemes and the participation of local people do not guarantee success; careful choice of approach and sensi- Page xvi tive implementation of whatever works well in a given situation, plus effective research and extension services are required. Christopher J Barrow University of Wales Swansea October 1998 Page xvii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Hamid Hicham and staff of the Direction Provincial d'Agriculture d'Azilal (DPA), based in or around Azilal in Morocco for facilitating studies of traditional terrace agriculture.
It is also difficult to say exactly when SWC becomes water harvesting (see Chapter 3). SWC can modify steep slopes to make their safe use possible (Jodha, 1990; Vincent, 1992; Yoder, 1994). A great many people seek livelihoods from steep land, and some countries have little that is level; for example, 75 per cent of Jamaica's cultivation is on slopes steeper than 18 per cent (Moldenhauer and Hudson, 1988, p33; Cracknell, 1983), as is much of the agriculture of Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Tibet, Burma, Pakistan, the Hindu Kush, Java, Taiwan, parts of the Middle East and North Africa, Andean South America, and many islands (Gumbs, 1993).
Indigenous SWC can act as a starting point for developing strategies to sustain and improve agriculture and encourage good land husbandry (Reij, 1991; Kerr, 1992; Critchley et al, 1994; Hagmann and Murwira, 1996; Reij et al, 1996). Caution is needed because strategies which work in one locality may not successfully transfer to another, apparently similar, situation, although with modification and care they might. Selecting appropriate SWC approaches for a given situation requires adequate information on runoff soil characteristics and erosion risk (Lal and Russel, 1981).