By Hazel Carter
This is often the fourth in a sequence of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned really in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guideline. This quantity presents a grammatical comic strip of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters hide humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.
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Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar
Allomorphs)when c€rtainvowels follow. The lV is includedherefor Classes5, 9 and 10nouns,as otherwiseit is impossibleto showthe tone class. Cr(ss I 2 mu-nlu mú-símbí mú-súne mwë-enzu mv-ánq mo-oÍu person girl ox stranger chíld blind person ba-nn bá-sínbi bó-súne bé-enzr b-ána bo-oÍu people girls oxêrl sttangers chilclren blind people ClassesI and 2 conrainmostly nounsr€ferringto humanbcingsandanimals. la lüto ciwena sínkondo namaumbwe my faúer cÍocodile enemy graveyard cí (í)n-kondo ma-umbwe waÌ graves Classla containsmanynounsreferringto kinfolk andanirnals,and deÌivativesin rt.
Rybaá-slnlando 'úey areenemies' Class5 haspdi-, takingon thetoneofthe IV: 11di-bbwe 'it's a sÍone' Classes9 and l0 have4È, takingon thetoneofthe IV , pí-mpóngo 'it's a goat' 25 b) definiteor restricted This statesthat the objectis a particularmemberofthe categoryor species. ' The souú hasdifferentvowelsin someclasses: ngú-muntu. Murmur is shownonly for the initial nasal;the occurrence of murmurelsewhereis not yet cleaÍ. - mu- mómu- 3 14- lnI 9 11- ri- SE2b is basically SE2a with the vowel assimilating to the following one in quality.
One with first stemsyllableNeutral(N) and Thereare two major tone-classes, the other with Determinant(D) on úe flrst root vowel. The two verbs shovm aboveare respectivelyN (ikusala) and D (íkituma). he neverevenlooksat me, (lit. kweenda,koona, havealreadybeendiscussed on page10. g. An unextended root is saidto be simplex The most commonextensionsare shownbelow; there are often allomorphsfollowing the rules of Vowel Harmonyand ConsonantHarmonv. VerbsarequotedasstemswithoutClass15Np. ) bo-lí-kond-ed-w-e'they are pleased' (-kond-w-a 'becomepleased') Relational (also known as Applied, Prepositional or Directive): this gives úe meaning'in relation to' and is often translatedinto Englishby prepositions.