Download An outline of Chitonga grammar by Hazel Carter PDF

By Hazel Carter

ISBN-10: 9982240161

ISBN-13: 9789982240161

This is often the fourth in a sequence of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned really in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guideline. This quantity presents a grammatical comic strip of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters hide humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.

Show description

Read or Download An outline of Chitonga grammar PDF

Best foreign language dictionaries & thesauruses books

Using Arabic Synonyms

Designed should you have already built a simple competence in Arabic, this finished synonyms consultant goals to increase and enhance the learner's vocabulary through supporting them locate definitely the right observe for the appropriate context. providing phrases of comparable that means jointly, it presents quite a number techniques for you to aid stay away from repetition and enhance sort, allowing scholars to improve a deeper knowledge of the delicate adjustments in that means and utilization of alternative phrases.


A simple introductory direction in Spoken jap within the Kunrei-Siki transcription method. Thirty classes and workouts. It explains the 2 romanization approach: the Hepburn procedure and the Kunrei-Siki, either crucial for learning jap with net. lots of lengthy workouts with key for model and retro-version.

Himalayan Languages: Past and Present

With its many and various languages, together with a few with very lengthy documented histories, its cultural variety, and its frequent multilingualism- either the sturdy and brief style- the Himalayan area is a treasure trove of empirical info for linguistic study on language typology and universals, ancient linguistics, language touch and areal linguistics.

Modality in Germanic Languages: Historical and Comparative Perspectives

Traits IN LINGUISTICS is a chain of books that open new views in our figuring out of language. The sequence publishes state of the art paintings on middle parts of linguistics throughout theoretical frameworks in addition to reviews that supply new insights by way of construction bridges to neighbouring fields akin to neuroscience and cognitive technology.

Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar

Sample text

Allomorphs)when c€rtainvowels follow. The lV is includedherefor Classes5, 9 and 10nouns,as otherwiseit is impossibleto showthe tone class. Cr(ss I 2 mu-nlu mú-símbí mú-súne mwë-enzu mv-ánq mo-oÍu person girl ox stranger chíld blind person ba-nn bá-sínbi bó-súne bé-enzr b-ána bo-oÍu people girls oxêrl sttangers chilclren blind people ClassesI and 2 conrainmostly nounsr€ferringto humanbcingsandanimals. la lüto ciwena sínkondo namaumbwe my faúer cÍocodile enemy graveyard cí (í)n-kondo ma-umbwe waÌ graves Classla containsmanynounsreferringto kinfolk andanirnals,and deÌivativesin rt.

Rybaá-slnlando 'úey areenemies' Class5 haspdi-, takingon thetoneofthe IV: 11di-bbwe 'it's a sÍone' Classes9 and l0 have4È, takingon thetoneofthe IV , pí-mpóngo 'it's a goat' 25 b) definiteor restricted This statesthat the objectis a particularmemberofthe categoryor species. ' The souú hasdifferentvowelsin someclasses: ngú-muntu. Murmur is shownonly for the initial nasal;the occurrence of murmurelsewhereis not yet cleaÍ. - mu- mómu- 3 14- lnI 9 11- ri- SE2b is basically SE2a with the vowel assimilating to the following one in quality.

One with first stemsyllableNeutral(N) and Thereare two major tone-classes, the other with Determinant(D) on úe flrst root vowel. The two verbs shovm aboveare respectivelyN (ikusala) and D (íkituma). he neverevenlooksat me, (lit. kweenda,koona, havealreadybeendiscussed on page10. g. An unextended root is saidto be simplex The most commonextensionsare shownbelow; there are often allomorphsfollowing the rules of Vowel Harmonyand ConsonantHarmonv. VerbsarequotedasstemswithoutClass15Np. ) bo-lí-kond-ed-w-e'they are pleased' (-kond-w-a 'becomepleased') Relational (also known as Applied, Prepositional or Directive): this gives úe meaning'in relation to' and is often translatedinto Englishby prepositions.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.73 of 5 – based on 46 votes