By A. D. Curson (auth.), D. A. Hemsley (eds.)
Synthetic polymers make first-class specimens for gentle microscopy. regardless of this, using the approach, not less than in its complicated types, isn't so frequent as can be anticipated. even if trustworthy and correct info are tough to discover and quantify, it sounds as if in different fields of fabrics technology and know-how there's a larger readiness to tum to the microscope in study, in business challenge fixing, or for caliber evaluate and keep an eye on. It additionally turns out that the explanations for the current state of affairs are partially historic, partially the results of the constitution of the plastics and rubber industries, and in part the schooling and coaching history of senior employees who are typically chemistry or engineering established. In neither box does gentle microscopy characteristic strongly within the uncomplicated education. the first target of this booklet is to supply a few perception into the diversity oflight microscopy thoughts appropriate to polymeric specimens, and to focus on average purposes to advertisement polymers and polymer items. the place applicable, the optical strategies concerned are mentioned in a few element. notwithstanding, it has now not been the purpose to provide a gentle microscopy textbook facing the rules and layout of the elemental software. Many such texts can be found, and chosen examples are stated within the reference checklist on the finish of such a lot chapters.
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Additional info for Applied Polymer Light Microscopy
Their disadvantage is their high price. Glass. For fine work on unfilled materials these are ideal. Freshly broken glass offers the sharpest edge available, and on a 45° knife the rigidity is also present. The disadvantages are the difficulty in producing a straight edge that is perpendicular to the sides of the knife, and the extreme brittleness of the edge. As a result of the latter, the technique of using such knives is to dress the sample with one knife and to use a new knife to cut the actual section.
Finally, it is a characteristic of polymer work that several methods of examination may be necessary to obtain as complete as possible a picture of the microstructure. It is therefore an advantage if the microscope stand will accept a range of accessories for contrast enhancement, quantitative measurement and photomicrography. 1 Observations on Pigment and Other Particulate Additives As discussed earlier in this chapter, most polymers may be classified as 'phase objects' since few show any appreciable intrinsic absorption in the visible spectrum.
Curson The remainder of the procedure is the same as that for large area thick sections but is extended to finish the top surface by polishing. lm, the final thinning being achieved by polishing. lm of 30% carbon fibre filled polyetheretherketone have been produced by the author. lm of brittle, hard or composite materials is to use an annular (or peripheral) diamond-eged saw. 16 which show the use of an annular blade. The glass plate (G) is necessary to clean the blade edge of any firmly attached polymer debris; the double jet oflubricant (water) is essential to wash away loose debris.