By Pietro Giuseppe Gucciardi, Guillaume Bachelier (auth.), Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs, Masahiko Tomitori (eds.)
The good fortune of the Springer sequence utilized Scanning Probe equipment I–VII and the speedily increasing actions in scanning probe improvement and functions around the globe made it a average step to gather additional speci c ends up in the elds of improvement of scanning probe microscopy suggestions (Vol. VIII), characterization (Vol. IX), and biomimetics and commercial purposes (Vol. X). those 3 volumes supplement the former set of volumes less than the topic issues and provides perception into the new paintings of best experts of their respective elds. Following the culture of the sequence, the chapters are prepared round strategies, characterization and biomimetics and commercial functions. quantity VIII makes a speciality of novel scanning probe suggestions and the certainty of tip/sample interactions. themes comprise close to eld imaging, complex AFM, s- cializedscanningprobemethodsinlifesciencesincludingnewselfsensingcantilever platforms, mixtures of AFM sensors and scanning electron and ion microscopes, calibration equipment, frequency modulation AFM for software in drinks, Kelvin probe strength microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy, and the dimension of electric shipping homes on the nanometer scale. Vol. IX makes a speciality of characterization of fabric surfaces together with structural in addition to neighborhood mechanical characterization, and molecular platforms. the quantity covers a vast spectrum of STM/AFM investigations together with fullerene layers, strength spectroscopy for probing fabric homes as a rule, organic lms .and cells, epithelial and endothelial layers, clinical similar structures resembling amyloidal aggregates, phospholipid monolayers, inorganic lms on aluminium and copper - ides,tribological characterization, mechanical homes ofpolymernanostructures, technical polymers, and close to eld optics.
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Additional info for Applied Scanning Probe Methods VIII: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques
283 8 9 10 Polarization-Modulation Techniques in Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Imaging of Polarization Anisotropy in Photonic Nanostructures Pietro Giuseppe Gucciardi, Ruggero Micheletto, Yoichi Kawakami, Maria Allegrini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 XXXIV 11 Contents – Volume II Focused Ion Beam as a Scanning Probe: Methods and Applications Vittoria Raffa, Piero Castrataro, Arianna Menciassi, Paolo Dario . 361 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . .
2a), a linearly polarized laser beam is focused by a Nomarski objective into two diffraction-limited spots on the sample surface. An atomic force microscope tip approaches one of the spots and locally enhances the light scattering. The reflection from the second spot is used as the reference beam. The two backscattered fields are collected and recombined on the detector, whose output allows one to extract information concerning both the amplitude and the phase of the field. Alternatively [35, 36], as shown in Fig.
A deep comprehension of the mechanisms leading to the formation of the measured signals is therefore fundamental to understanding and improving the background suppression techniques illustrated in the previous section [45, 46]. 1 Noninterferometric Detection Noninterferometric apertureless SNOM is based on the schematic in Fig. 2b in which the reference beam of the interferometer is suppressed. Usually light detection is accomplished in a different direction with respect to the illumination. This approach, combined with tip vibration and demodulation at higher harmonics, works well in the mid-IR region [15, 47, 48], but fails to sufficiently suppress the background in the visible range.