By Robert van Rooij
In this booklet, the writer defends a unified externalists account of propositional attitudes and reference, and formalizes this view inside of attainable global semantics. He establishes a hyperlink among philosophical analyses of intentionality and reference and formal semantic theories of discourse illustration and context switch. Stalnakerian diagonalization performs a big function the following. Anaphora are taken care of as referential expressions, whereas presupposition is noticeable as a propositional angle. The relation among trust swap and the semantic analyses of conditional sentences and evidential (knowledge) and buletic (desire) propositional attitudes is mentioned extensively.
"Van Rooij has new and engaging issues to claim either approximately foundational matters within the philosophy of language, and concerning the info of particular analyses, f.e. approximately intensional id, epistemic modals, propositional perspective attributions, presupposition lodging, conditionals and trust change." Robert Stalnaker, MIT
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Extra info for Attitudes and Changing Contexts
4, even if Oscar’s twin utters Water is the best drink for quenching thirst on Earth, he is intuitively not talking about H2 O, but about XY Z. To account for this, Haas Spohn (1994) proposes that Oscar and his twin do not really speak the same language, in particular, that Oscar’s twin does not speak English. I am leaving out quantiﬁcation over models here. 8 Context dependence: two-dimensional semantics 31 In this book, or at least in this chapter, I will normally not stretch the Kaplanian notion of a character in the same way as suggested by van Fraassen and Haas Spohn.
This is given up, however, when belief states are modelled by (sets of) characters. According to Lewis (1979a) and Stalnaker (1981), we don’t have to model belief states by characters to account for the ﬁne-grained ignorances that the two gods have. 32 According to Lewis, the gods know what world they live in, but lack knowledge about who they are, or where they are in a world. He concludes that a belief state can no longer be represented by a set of worlds, a proposition. Analyzing self-locating beliefs, according to Lewis, requires a belief state to be represented by a set of agents, a property.
But we also saw that these normality conditions are contingent; they might be diﬀerent from world to world. On Twin Earth the normality 29 This might be somewhat misleading, because it seems reasonable to assume that who or what is salient in a particular conversation is a fact about the world. 36 1 Content, belief and belief attributions conditions of the actual world do not obtain: there it is normally not H2 O but XY Z that has the relevant observable properties, and is ‘responsible’ for the use of the term water by Twin-Earth (twin-) English speakers.