Download Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition by Warren J. Manning MD, Dudley J. Pennell MD FRCP FACC PDF

By Warren J. Manning MD, Dudley J. Pennell MD FRCP FACC

ISBN-10: 0443066868

ISBN-13: 9780443066863

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Additional info for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition

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11 T2* is always less than T2 for all tissues because it includes the effects of T2 relaxation and offresonance effects. Later we will describe how to minimize or use these effects to make in vivo measurements. SðtÞ ¼ S0 eÀt=T2 In tissue, T2* causes very rapid magnetic relaxation of water protons, compared with T2 relaxation. Thus, the decay rate of the FID is actually a measure of T2*. Because T2* is a more rapid process, it limits the time that we can detect the MR signal. It is possible to circumvent and reverse some of the T2* dephasing because some of it is caused by fixed B0 field inhomogeneity.

Magn Reson Med. 1990;15 (2):287–304. 21. Hennig J, Nauerth A, Friedburg H. RARE imaging: a fast imaging method for clinical MR. Magn Reson Med. 1986;3(6):823–833. 22. Abdel-Aty H, Zagrosek A, Schulz-Menger J, Taylor AJ, Messroghli D, Kumar A, Gross M, Dietz R, Friedrich MG. Delayed enhancement and T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging differentiate acute from chronic myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2004;109 (20):2411–2416. 23. , Arai AE. Retrospective determination of the area at risk for reperfused acute myocardial infarction with T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: histopathological and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) functional validations.

The phase and frequency encoding directions are labeled. MR imaging can be understood as TR and TE in a Spin Echo Sequence TR 90º 180º 180º (NS) 90º Excitation Slice Select Phase encoding phase encoding strength changes Readout Signal TE TE Figure 1-12 Pulse sequence diagram with phase encoding. The phase encoding gradient is often applied just before frequency encoding. A cardiovascular magnetic resonance image is acquired by repetition of the pulse sequence multiple times, as shown here, where the 90 gradient, the 180 gradient, and all gradients are shown repeated.

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