By Jandial, Rahul; Neman, Josh; Snyder, Evan Y.; Toy, Eugene C
Examine NEUROSCIENCE within the CONTEXT OF REAL-LIFE sufferers and get ready FOR THE forums
Experience with medical circumstances is vital to excelling at the USMLE Step 1 and shelf assessments, and finally to delivering sufferers with efficient medical care. Case documents: Neuroscience offers forty nine true-to-life instances that illustrate crucial options during this box. each one case contains an easy-tounderstand dialogue correlated to crucial easy technology options, definitions of key words, neuroscience pearls, and USMLE-style overview questions. With Case records, you will study rather than memorize.
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Extra info for Case Files Neuroscience 2/E
She notes that immediately following death, the resting membrane potential remains the same as when the animal was alive but that it slowly decreases toward zero over the following hours. What cellular mechanism is most responsible for maintaining the resting potential? A. Na+/K+ ATPase B. Na+, K+, Cl– cotransporter (NKCC) C. Ca2+ ATPase D. 1 C. A decreased extracellular K+ concentration will result in hyperpolarization of the nerve. Because potassium is the major intracellular cation in nerves, major alterations in the body’s store of potassium can have a significant effect on the resting membrane potential of the nerve and thus its ability to propagate electrical signals.
The tight junctions of the endothelial cells are most important in maintaining the BBB. The BBB is a very important structure that, as the name implies, restricts access of molecules from the blood to the brain. This restriction is generally based on size and lipid solubility such that small, lipophilic molecules can cross, whereas larger, lipophobic molecules cannot. The BBB also helps to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering the brain. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for myelinating CNS axons, Schwann cells for myelinating PNS axons, and microglia are the phagocytes of the CNS.
Table 1-1 • SURVIVAL ESTIMATES FOR ASTROCYTOMAS Oligodendroglioma is another type of primary brain tumor that arises from the oligodendrocyte. This is the glial cell that provides the myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons in the central nervous system. Oligodendrogliomas generally affect adults in their fifth decade of life, developing in the frontal lobes and presenting with seizures. They have a characteristic appearance on radiographs and on microscopic examination, due to the calcifications pattern in the tumor.